Public sector reform, especially government reform, administrative reform has become a common trend in countries around the world. One of the reform trends that countries strive to implement is the goal of "Small Government, Big Society". In Vietnam, organizational reform of the national administration is always a central task of the reform process. The rational organization of the government apparatus not only contributes to improving the efficiency of national governance, contributes to promoting the development of society but also contributes to the confidence of the people and investors in Vietnam and the Vietnamese government. This book provides theoretical issues on the model of small government construction, the relationship between government and market; analyze the current state of organization and operation of the Vietnamese government; propose solutions to renovate the organization and operation model under the orientation of "small government, big society".