A considerable change in climate at a global level will impact the vegetable cultivation and agriculture as a whole; subsequently affecting the world's food supply. Climate change per se is not necessarily harmful; the problems arise from extreme events that are difficult to predict (erratic rainfall patterns and unpredictable high and low temperatures), and consequently reduce crop productivity. Vegetables are in general more succulent (have 90% water) and are more sensitive to climatic vagaries. Sudden changes in temperature coupled with irregular precipitation at any phase of crop growth can affect the normal growth, flowering, pollination, fruit setting, fruit development and fruit ripening can decrease the yield. The irregular precipitation can also affect the soil salinity and is a major challenge in many vegetable growing areas. To mitigate the harmful impact of climatic change there is a urgent need to develop adequate adaptation strategies for adverse effect of climate change and the preference should be given on development of heat, cold, drought, flood and salinity stress tolerant genotypes along with climate proofing through conventional and non-conventional breeding techniques. Available evidence shows that there is a high probability of increase in the frequency and intensity of climate related natural hazards due to climate change and hence increases the potential threat due to climate change related natural disasters in the world. This book (Volume- I) will be basically useful for the researchers and postgraduate students with current challenges and mitigation strategies for increasing vegetable production under a changing climate.