A first of its kind in India, the book addresses the fundamental questions of environmental concern and enquires into the complex patterns of human–nature interaction within the discipline of environmental history in India. This book delves into history to examine a number of critical themes, such as waterbodies and water, forests, land use, wildlife and the issue of the history of climate in India. It focuses on the methodological and historiographical aspects of environmental history and raises new questions to open up new windows leading to fresh research questions. The book argues that environmental history would serve as an important gateway to the history of the human–nature relationship, for example, exploring the role of water history would help in understanding the present context of water crisis in Indian cities. Critical Themes in Environmental History of India is a powerful reminder of the fact that in the context of Indian history it is now necessary to listen to the voice of nature more carefully.